INTRODUCTION The term refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently with and through other people. (Stephen P. Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, 1997) Organization is a group of people with formally assigned roles who work together to achieve the stated goals of the group. (Gary Dessler, 2001) A manager is an individual in an organization who directs the activities of others. (Stephen P. Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, 1997) In my opinion, management refers to the people who do it or the process to do it.
It must be applies as the root or the base for an organization. Usually, the management related with the manager. An organization cannot run by themselves. So, the organization must have a management. We must alert that organization not necessarily just be business purpose. Even in a classroom, when we have a class monitor and assistant class monitor, it is still an organization. For example, organizations needn’t just be business firms; the definition applies equally well to colleges, local governments, and nonprofits like the American Red Cross. Gary Dessler, 2001) Efficiency is the capability of producing desired results with a minimum of energy, time, money, materials, or other costly inputs. (R. Wayne Mondy, Shane R. Premeaux, 1993) Effectiveness is the capability of bringing about an effect or accomplishing a purpose, sometimes without regard to the quantity of resources consumed in the process. (R. Wayne Mondy, Shane R. Premeaux, 1993) Efficiency is concerned with means, and effectiveness with ends. (Stephen P. Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, 1997) Efficiency and effectiveness are the two common important factors in a management.
Efficiency more focuses on does the important things and right, while effectiveness is doing the right regardless, which, is more important. The benefit of efficiency is we can save or reduced our resources, at the same time, we can produce minimum service or products. Furthermore, when we can reduce our resources, our money or budget also can be reducing and the money can contribute for other purpose. The benefit of effectiveness is we can target how far the company can go in the industry or market that we involved in. We must have direction in our company.
MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Management functions refer to planning, organizing, leading and controlling. (Stephen P. Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, 1997) Planning is the process of determining in advance what should be accomplished and how it should be realized. (R. Wayne Mondy, Shane R. Premeaux, 1993) Organizing is the process of delegating and coordinating tasks and resources to achieve objectives. (Robert H. Lussier, 1997) Leading is includes motivating subordinates, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. Rusinah Siron, 1999) Controlling is monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished, planned and correcting any significant deviations. (Rusinah Siron, 1999) Planning, organizing, leading and controlling are the four basic functions in a management. Usually managers use this four important element to manage the work in an organization. All the functions are related with each other. If one of this functions is missing or the managers did not apply in the organization, the result maybe did not good as we aspect. Furthermore, the long term or short term of the goals in an organization did not realized.
For example, Puan Suri wants to produce 500 sweetmeats. Indirectly, Puan Suri is the manager and applies the first function of management, which is planning. The ingredients must be arranged according to their expertise and set the time for one of the sweetmeats must be produced. That is what we call organizing. Sometimes the worker can get tired if the period of the working time is too long. Furthermore, the workers can get exhausted. Puan Suri applies the third functions, which is leading functions. She has to motivate or influencing all the people in her company to get the tasks or job done.
The last function, which is controlling applies when Puan Suri check the quality of the sweetmeats and the quotas that produced are correct. MANAGEMENT ROLES APPROACH Interpersonal roles are how a manager interacts with other people. (Rusinah Siron, 1999) This skill has connection with human skill and relationships with other. The figurehead, leader and liaison are the role for the interpersonal role category. Let say the figurehead role. The managers use this role are the symbolic or representative of the organization. For example, the presentation of employee awards by a ivision manager at Taco Bell is an example of the figurehead role. (Richard L. Daft, 1997) Informational roles are how a manager exchanges and processes information. (Rusinah Siron, 1999) Manager use this role to create system or activities for an information network. The monitor, disseminator and spokesperson are the role for the informational role category. Let say the monitor role. The activity of this role is seeking current information such market, environment from different sources. For example, Puan Suri is a sweetmeats maker. She must find the suitable market or place to promote and sell her products.
Decisional roles are how a manager uses information in decision-making. (Rusinah Siron, 1999) Managers must reflect or take action and make decision rapidly. This role often uses conceptual as well as human skills. The entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator are the role for the decisional role category. Let say the negotiator role. The activity of this role is representative from the organization to with negotiates with other side to gain some result. For example, the manager meets and formally negotiates with others supplier about a late delivery.
So that it will not happen again. If not, it will effect our production. SKILLS APPROACH Conceptual skill is the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship among its parts. (Richard L. Daft, 1997) This skill is similarity with imagination. It helps the managers’ ability to think out of the box. The managers must conclude all the factors around him / her like social environment. Usually, the managers at the top need the conceptual skill. The example for the managers at the top is executive vice president, president, managing directors, chief operating officer (COO) and many more.
For example, Microsoft Corporation, the giant software company, reflects the conceptual skills of its founder and chairman, Bill Gates. Overall business are clearly stated and effectively communicated throughout the company, contributing of Microsoft’s leadership reputation and billion dollars revenue. While actively participating in and coordinating small units devoted to functional areas such as programming and marketing. Gates spread his concepts for Microsoft by delegating to a cadre of strong managers. (Richard L. Daft, 1997)
Human skill is the manager’s ability to work with and through other people and to work efficiently as a group member. (Richard L. Daft, 1997) The manager has good connection when he / she applies this skill. It becomes more important with the increase in globalization and workforce diversity. Manager can increase the confident of the organization and develop healthy environment. For example, Barry Merkin, chairman of Dresher, Inc. , the largest U. S. manufacturer of brass beds, is a cheerleader for his employees. He visits the plant floor and uses humor and hoopla to motivate them (Richard L.
Daft, 1997) Technical skill is the understanding of and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks. (Richard L. Daft, 1997) The manager must know the function of the work and to solve specific problems. This skill needed by the manager who gets promoted to their first management job because of their technical skill. But the skill become trifling compare to the human skill and conceptual skill according to the hierarchy when the manager get promoted. It is important because it involved big cost if mistakes happen. For example Rodney Mott, plant manager at Nucor Corp. s new Hickman, Arkansas, steel mill needed technical skills to decide on the installation of a new $50 million caster, which turns liquid metal into bands of steel. (Richard L. Daft, 1997) CONCLUSION Each organization has its own goals or purpose that leads the organization towards reach its own target. I agree with the statement that managers play an important role in managing a particular organization towards its objectives. With the combining of the management functions, skill approach and managers’ roles approach, it completes all the particular or features in an organization.
Furthermore, efficiency and effectiveness is the catalyst of the success in an organization. I encourage that manager must be a role model for the organization. So that corruption will not happen in an organization. Nowadays managers did not show their best performance and good manner among their workers. The effect is badly can happen. I suggest that we must strengthen and absorb an Islamic way in the organization, and the manager must have strong Islamic background. So that he or she can lead the organization to the right way.
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