Blood a journey through the body. You might find yourself asking, what does blood have to do with digestion, respiration and circulation? Hopefully, after the presentation all of your questions will be answered. When a person thinks of digestion they usually think about what happens in the stomach. A lot has happened to digest the food way before it gets to the stomach. It starts in the mouth or oral cavity. It is a process called mechanical digestion. First, Mastication begins. Mastication is the chewing of the food. A person will crush, grind and tear the food apart. That gets the food ready for deglutition.
Deglutition is the swallowing of the mashed up food. When we swallow peristalsis begins. Peristalsis is what happens to the food on the way to the stomach. Mostly peristalsis is the mixing and moving of food on the way through the esophagus, and into the stomach. It is also part of the movement through the intestines. Chemical digestion also starts out in the mouth, but instead of using the tongue and teeth to break down the food chemicals are used. Enzymes and acid are in the saliva that is secreted in the mouth. Saliva begins to break down the food and carbohydrates into an absorbable solution.
These nutrients will be absorbed by the body. What is not absorbed is moved on down through the body to the stomach. The stomach also secretes chemicals that are used in digestion. Pepsinogen breaks protein type foods down into protein molecules. Hydrochloric acid also breaks down food, kills microorganisms and converts pepsinogen to pepsin. Then the last chemical the stomach uses is gastrin. Gastrin is a hormone that helps to create more pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid. The food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine. In the intestines once again, Mechanical and chemical digestion are working together.
Mechanical digestion is still breaking down the food, but now it focuses on fats. The fats that are broken down in the duodenum help to stimulate the duodenum to secrete cholecystokinin. This hormone stimulates the gallbladder and the pancreas. The gallbladder contracts, and releases bile. Bile will begin to break down fat even more. The pancreas dispenses four enzymes which help to break down protein, sugar, carbohydrates and fat. When everything has been broken down enough, absorption can begin. In the ileum food and nutrients move through the intestines into the blood.
Blood carries the nutrients and food directly to the liver. The liver regulates how much nutrients and acids the body needs. If there is extra sugar for example the liver will store it until it is needed by the body. The parts of the food that are left is considered waist. The waist continues down the large intestine until it is disposed of by way of solid waste. Many people take the respiratory system for granted. We breathe in and out countless times every day not giving a single thought to the work that is involved. The respiratory takes in oxygen and lets out carbon dioxide that is its purpose.
When we breathe it is an involuntary action. The brain regulates the depth and rate that we take in and let out air. Our brain receives information from arteries in the neck as well as the chest. These receptors sense the amounts of oxygen in our blood. Impulses are sent to the phrenic nerve cause the initiation of breathing. Now we know what makes us breathe, where does oxygen enter the body? It all starts in the nasal cavity. First we breathe in, and the air enters the nasal septum. The nasal septum slows air down using its turbinate’s. The turbinate’s also helping warm the air and give it moister.
To filter the air as it flows through the nose there is a mucous membrane. The nasal mucosa humidifies the air, ands traps dust, allergens and bacteria before they enter the lungs. The pharynx is not only a passageway for inhaled and exhaled air, but it is also a passageway for ingested food. At the pharynx’s end there is a divide that has one side leading to the esophagus and the other side leading to the trachea. Like the nose it also filters dust and other particles from reaching the lungs, and it has mucous membranes to warm and moisten the air. When the air leaves the pharynx it moves on to the larynx.
The larynx is also called the voice box. It not only remains open for speech, but also during respiration. The larynx merges with the trachea just below the vocal cords. The trachea is also called the wind pipe, and it is a one inch tube that connects to the bronchi. The bronchi divide into the right and left mainstream bronchi. After entering a lung each side branches off forming many smaller passages. In the center of the bronchi is the lumen. It is the central opening where the air passes through. The lungs are sponges that fill with air, and fill every inch the surrounding thoracic cavity. The lungs contain lobes.
The lobes divide each lung, and the right lung being bigger has more lobe divisions. The pulmonary veins enter here and exit here as well. Inside the lungs are clusters of air sacks that are called alveoli. The alveoli are part of the bronchioles that enter each lung. The oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs. The exchange happens from a small blood vassal nod the alveoli. When the oxygen exchange is completed the inhaled air moves into the blood. While the oxygen moves into the blood the carbon dioxide is exhaled by the lungs. Before the blood can be moved properly it has to be made into oxyhemoglobin.
This is done by combining the oxygen with hemoglobin. This is called oxygenated blood, and it can now be pumped into the heart. From the heart it is circulated through the body. The purpose of circulation is to circulate the blood through the body. The circulation system is like a delivery system for the digestion and respiratory systems. The digestion and respiratory system create nutrients and oxygen and place it in the blood to be delivered to the places it needs to go. It might need to be delivered to the heart, muscles or even other cells. Without the circulatory system the body would not be able to function.
The heart has four chambers two on the top and tow on the bottom. The upper chambers are known as the atrium and the lower ones are known as the ventricle. Valves control the flow of blood through the heart. Using the blood vessels the heart circulates the blood around the body. There are two different ways that the heart does this. One is called the systemic circulation and the other is called pulmonary circulation. When the blood comes back to the heart from the body it is called systemic circulation. The blood is a dark reddish purple color, and it is low on oxygen and high on carbon dioxide.
It will travel through the right atrium then go through the tricuspid, and then the right ventricle. After completing this blood will flow through the pulmonary valve and go into the arteries. The blood will then be carried to the lungs. Once in the lungs the blood will release carbon dioxide. It then picks up the oxygen and changes to a bright red color. Then the blood will do the same thing over again. This is to return to the systemic circulation program. The digestive system takes the food a person eats and turns it into nutrients that are transported in the circulatory system via the blood.
The respiratory system takes polluted oxygen and filters it until there is good quality oxygen. Then that oxygen is transformed into oxyhemoglobin so that is can travel through the blood stream, and circulated through the blood stream by the circulatory system. The circulatory system is pumped by the heart and moved in a path throughout the body. This system feeds the body the nutrients or air that it needs to survive. Without all three systems working together the entire process would not work. When you remove one system from the process than the body will not be fed what it needs to live.
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