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Description of the Disease Essay

Description of the disease Diabetes is a life-threatening disease, in which the body does not produce or improperly produce insulin. The cause of diabetes can be related to genetics and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercises. There are two types of diabetes. Type I diabetes affects children and young adults. This type of diabetes occurs when the body does not produce insulin. In this case the patient needs to take insulin injections daily to replace the missing insulin.

On the other hand, Type II diabetes is when the body has a resistance to insulin combined with relative insulin deficiency. Even though the body produces insulin, the sugar has a hard time getting from the blood to the working cells. Diabetes usually presents symptoms, such as frequent urination, hunger, and increased thirst due to the lack of enough water in the human body. People who have diabetes also commonly show signs of UTI (Urinary Track Infection). A UTI usually occurs when bacteria clings to the opening of the urethra and subsequently multiplies.

One of the symptoms that people with UTI experience is pain in the urethra or bladder during urination. Individuals with UTI may also find themselves walking up frequently in the middle of the night with a sudden need to urinate. Another symptom diabetes may experience is a increase in hunger. Untreated diabetes has lower than normal levels of insulin, a natural chemical that regulates the blood-sugar level. Ghrellin, sometimes referred to as the “hunger hormone”, is also that has very strong relation to food intake.

Studies have shown that a person’s appetite increases as levels increase, ghrelin levels increase, which in turn cause an individual to become hungrier. Diabetes also negatively affects the human body. One of the problems that people experience is a higher risk of heart attacks. According to the ADA, diabetic are at a significantly grater risk of having a heart attack versus people who do not have diabetes. Diabetics have higher blood sugar levels; which causes plaque to build up in the arteries. Having high plaque levels in the arteries can cause blood and xygen supply to the heart to decrease in will eventually cause the heart to fail, there for, creating a heart attack. Another symptom that diabetics may experience is burning sensation in their hands of feet. The burning sensation or even numbness that can often times be felt by diabetics is caused by nerves cells sending improper signals to the brain. These nerves cells are responsible for giving the brain its sense of touch, allowing for the human body to feel sensation such as pain, heat and cold.

Improper nerve cells signals will get sent to the brain when either damage has occurred to the nerve cell or blood and oxygen supply to the nerve cell is low. Low blood supply to nerve cells if often caused by sugar attaching to the arteries, which will cause constriction of blood flow. Another problem that diabetic may face is damage to the kidneys. The main function of the kidney is to filter waste product out of the blood. The kidneys are able to achieve this filtering by using millions of small blood vessels, which act as a filter.

These blood vessels have small holes, which let tiny waste molecules from the blood filter out in to the urine while the bigger protein molecules stay behind the blood. Have a high blood sugar levels will cause the filters to work harder and over long periods of time this will cause the filters to eventually were out from the overuse. The over use will cause the blood vessels to function improperly by letting some waste stay in the bloodstream and leaking some proteins out into the urine

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