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Harvard Reference Essay

32 Harvard Referencing 2006 Note: this page is only an introduction to the Harvard referencing system. Curtin Library & Information Service provides a modified version of the author-date system presented in: Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual: For authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, n. p. For referencing electronic sources, refer to the American Psychological Association’s Publication manual: American Psychological Association 2001, Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edn, APA, Washington, DC.

Note: A modified APA style is used for electronic sources to fit in with the Harvard referencing style provided by Curtin Library & Information Service as the Style manual does not cover this area fully. The information and examples contained on this page are chiefly derived from the above publications. It is very important that you check your department or school’s assignment guide as some details, eg. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school’s requirements. What is Referencing?

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Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from both published and unpublished works must be referenced. There are many acceptable forms of referencing. This information sheet provides a brief guide to the Harvard referencing style. Within the text of the assignment the author’s name is given first, followed by the publication date.

A reference list at the end of the assignment contains the full details of all the in-text citations. Why Reference? Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited author’s arguments. Steps Involved in Referencing 1. Note down the full bibliographic details including the page number(s) from which the information is taken. In the case of a book, ‘bibliographical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable). In the case of a journal article, the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers. For all electronic information, in addition to the above you should note the date that you accessed the information, and database name or web address (URL). 2. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the document (see examples below). 3.

Provide a reference list at the end of the document (see examples below). In-Text Citations Use the name of the author, followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text of an assignment. Where authors of different references have the same family name, include the author’s initials in the in-text citation i. e. (Hamilton, CL 1994) or CL Hamilton (1994). If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation, separated by a semicolon e. g. (Brown 1991; Smith 2003).

They are presented alphabetically by author. When directly quoting from another source, the relevant page number must be given and quotation marks placed around the quote. When paraphrasing or referring to an idea from another source which is a book or lengthy text, include the relevant page number, as this might be useful to the reader. In general, page numbers should be included in all in-text citations, as many schools insist on this practice. How to Create a Reference List A reference list only includes books, articles etc that are cited in the text.

A bibliography is a list containing the sources used in developing a publication and other sources the author considers might be of use or interest to the reader. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. Where an item has no author it is cited by its title, and ordered in the reference list or bibliography alphabetically by the first significant word of the title. The Harvard style requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented, as shown in the examples below, to highlight the alphabetical order 2 of 11 Semester 1 2006

Examples of referencing: Books Single author In-Text Example ‘The theory was first propounded in 1993’ (Comfort 1997, p. 58) OR ‘Comfort (1997, p. 58) claimed that…’ Reference List Example Comfort, A 1997, A good age, Mitchell Beazley, London. EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Book 2 or 3 authors (Madden & Hogan 1997, p. 45) OR Madden and Hogan (1997, p. 45) discuss this idea… Madden, R & Hogan, T 1997, The definition of disability in Australia: moving towards national consistency, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra. Book 4 or more authors (Leeder et al. 1996, p. 69)

Leeder, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Mathews, PS, Williams, DW & Mariot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry, Dominion Press, Adelaide. Book No author ‘This was apparently not the case before about 1995’ (Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, p. 14)… OR ‘In Advertising in the Western Cape (1990, p. 14) it was claimed that…’ Advertising in the Western Cape 1990, ABC Publishers, Cape Town. Book Multiple works by same author ‘University research (Brown 1982, 1988) has indicated that…’ Brown, P 1982, Corals in the Capricorn group, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.

Brown, P 1988, The effects of anchor on corals, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. Order chronologically in the reference list. Book 3 of 11 Semester 1 2006 Multiple works published in the same year by the same author ‘In recent reports (Napier 1993a, 1993b)…’ Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year. Napier, A 1993a, Fatal storm, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. Napier, A 1993b, Survival at sea, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list. Book Editor (Kastenbaum 1993, p. 78) Kastenbaum, R (ed. 1993, Encyclopedia of adult development, Oryx Press, Phoenix. Edited Book Different Editions Renton (2004, p. 5) suggests that… Renton, N 2004, Compendium of good writing, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton. An edition number is placed after the title of the work – this is not necessary for a first edition. Book Encyclopedia or Dictionary The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (1980, p. 85) defined it as… As discussed by Blaxter (1976, p. 101)… Sadie, S (ed. ) 1980, The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, 6th edn, Macmillan, London.

Blaxter, M 1976, ‘Social class and health inequalities’, in C Carter & J Peel (eds), Equalities and inequalities in health, Academic Press, London, pp. 120-135. ‘Solving the Y2K problem’ 1997, in D Bowd (ed. ), Technology today and tomorrow, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p. 27. Edited Book Article or chapter in a book Book Section Article or chapter in a book – no author (Solving the Y2K problem 1997, p. 23). Book Section You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics. Book You will need to type [Brochure] manually after the title. Brochure (Research and Training Centre 1993, p. 2)

Research and Training Centre on Independent Living 1993, Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities [Brochure], 4th edn, Research and Training Centre, Lawrence, KS. The publisher’s name may be abbreviated if it is also the author. 4 of 11 Semester 1 2006 E-book (Pettinger 2002) Pettinger, R 2002, Global organizations, Capstone Publishing, Oxford. Retrieved September 28, 2004, from NetLibrary database. Electronic Book (put September 28, 2004 in the Date Accessed field, NetLibrary in Name of Database) Thesis (put PhD in Thesis Type, December 21, 2005 in Access Date, Curtin University of Technology Digital Theses in URL. Conference Proceeding (put The National trust into the new millennium in Title, Proceedings of the ninth meeting of the International National Trust in Conference Name, Australian Council of National Trusts in Publisher, Alice Springs, NT in Conference Location , January 20, 2006 in Access Date, Informit Online in Name of Database. ) Report Thesis (Jones 1998, p. 89) Jones, F 1998, ‘The mechanism of Bayer residue flocculation’, PhD Thesis, Curtin University of Technology. Retrieved December 21, 2005, from Curtin University of Technology Digital Theses. Conference Proceeding (Debono 2000)

Debono, C 2000, ‘The National Trust into the new millennium’, Proceedings of the ninth meeting of the International National Trust, Australian Council of National Trusts, Alice Springs, NT, pp. 44-6. Retrieved January 20, 2006, from Informit Online database. Annual report of an organisation (Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001) OR Billabong’s annual report (2005) Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001, Annual report 2001-2002, Canberra. OR Billabong International Ltd. 2005, Annual report 2005 – brands. Retrieved January 27, 2006, from Connect4 database.

Image in a book The poster ‘Buy Australian Apples’ (Cowle & Walker 2005, p. 65) In-Text Example As mentioned by Wharton (1996, p. 8)… Cowle, C & Walker, D 2005, The art of apple branding, Apples from Oz, Hobart. Reference List Example Wharton, N 1996, ‘Health and safety in outdoor activity centres’, Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 8-9. Book Print Journals Article EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Journal Article 5 of 11 Semester 1 2006 Article – no author ‘It’s a growing problem in the U. K. ’ (Anorexia nervosa 1969, p. 530)… Anorexia nervosa’ 1969, British Medical Journal, vol. 1, pp. 529-30. Journal Article You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics. Newspaper/Magazine article Newspaper article – no author (Towers 2000) Towers, K 2000, ‘Doctor not at fault: coroner’, Australian, 18 January, p. 3. Provide all the details in the in-text citation – no need for an entry in the reference list. Newspaper Article ….. in the Sydney Morning Herald (24 January 2000, p. 12) Press release (Watersmith 2000) Watersmith, C 2000, BHP enters new era, media release, BHP Limited, Melbourne, 1 March.

Report (put media release in the Accession Number field, BHP Limited in Institution, 1 March in Report Number) Electronic Journals Full text from an electronic database In-Text Example (Madden 2002) Reference List Example Madden, G 2002, ‘Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective’, Economic Record, vol. 78, no. 242, pp. 343-58. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from ABI/INFORM Global database. EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Journal Article (put October 16, 2002 in the Access Date field, ABI/INFORM database in Name of Database. Full text from an electronic database – no author The internet has had a huge impact on the Australian economy’ (Internet economics and policy 2002, p. 350) ‘Internet economics and policy: an Australian perspective’ 2002, Economic Record, vol. 78, no. 242, pp. 343-58. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from ABI/INFORM Global database. Journal Article (put October 16, 2002 in the Access Date field, ABI/INFORM Global database in Name of Database) You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics. 6 of 11 Semester 1 2006 Full text newspaper, newswire or magazine from an electronic database – no author (WA packed with overseas appeal 2004) WA packed with overseas appeal’ 2004, West Australian, 12 November, p. 47. Retrieved November 13, 2004, from Factiva database. Newspaper Article (put November 13, 2004 in the Access Date field, Factiva database in Name of Database) You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics Full text from the internet It was proposed by Byrne (2004) that… Byrne, A 2004, ‘The end of history: censorship and libraries’, The Australian Library Journal, vol. 53, no. 2. Retrieved November 16, 2004, from http://www. alia. org. au/publishing/alj/53. 2/full. text/ byrne. html

Journal Article (put November 16, 2004 in the Access Date field, http://www. alia. org. au/publishing/alj/53. 2/f ull. text/byrne. html in Database) Journal Article (put October 16, 2002 in the Access Date field, Curtin University Library & Information Service E-Reserve in Database) Journal Article (put October 16, 2002 in the Access Date field, UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc in Name of Database) EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Article from Curtin EReserve (Davidhizar & Dowd 1997, p. 29) Davidhizar, R & Dowd, SB 1997, ‘The art of giving an effective presentation’, Health Care Supervisor, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 5-31. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from Curtin University Library & Information Service E-Reserve. Article from database on CD-ROM (BPO) (La Rosa 1992, p. 58) La Rosa, SM 1992, ‘Marketing slays the downsizing dragon’, Information Today, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 589. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from UMI Business Periodicals Ondisc database. Reference List Example Thibodeau, GA & Patton, KT (eds. ) 2002. The human body in health and disease, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo. Record the book that you actually sourced. Secondary Sources Book In-Text Example ‘Including neuralgia’ (Carini and Hogan, cited in Thibodeau & Patton 2002, p. 5) OR Carini and Hogan (cited in Thibodeau & Patton 2002, p. 45)… Book You will need to type Carini and Hogan manually in the in-text citation. 7 of 11 Semester 1 2006 Journal Article ‘…origins of neuralgia’ (Carini and Hogan, cited in Patton 2002, p. 2154) OR Carini and Hogan (cited in Patton 2002) Patton, KT 2002, ‘Neuralgia and headaches’, Science, vol. 4, pp. 2153-55. Record the journal that you actually sourced. Journal Article You will need to type Carini and Hogan manually in the in-text citation. World Wide Web Document on WWW In-Text Example ‘It’s essential you learn how to reference’ (Dawson et al. 2002).

Reference List Example Dawson, J, Smith, L, Deubert, K & Grey-Smith, S 2002, ‘S’ Trek 6: referencing, not plagiarism. Retrieved October 31, 2002, from http://studytrekk. lis. curtin. edu. au/ EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Electronic Source (use Access Date & URL for retrieved statement. ) Document on WWW – No author (Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons 2001) Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons 2001. Retrieved November 13, 2002, from http://www. windspeed. net. au/~jenny/seadragons/ Electronic Source (use Access Date & URL for retrieved statement. ) Document on WWW – No date (Royal Institute of British Architects n. d. )

Royal Institute of British Architects n. d. , Shaping the future: careers in architecture. Retrieved May 31, 2005, from http://www. careersinarchitecture. net/ Electronic Source (put Royal Institute of British Architects in the Author field, n. d. in Year, use Access Date & URL for retrieved statement. ) Image on the web The image of the bleached coral (Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events 2002) Coral bleaching and mass bleaching events [Image] 2002. Retrieved September 2, 2005 from http://www. gbrmpa. gov. au/corp_site/info_services/scie nce/bleaching Electronic Source (type [Image] manually after the title of the image) of 11 Semester 1 2006 Government Publications Act of Parliament In-Text Example The Commonwealth’s Copyright Act 1968… [future references do not include date] Reference List Example Legislation is included in a list of references only if it is important to an understanding of the work. Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading ‘Legislation’. Essential elements: Short title Date (Jurisdiction) eg. Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth). If legislation is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieved statement as for electronic journal articles.

EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Enter in-text citation manually. Cases The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 54 Legal authorities are included in a list of references only if they are important to an understanding of the work. Set the list apart from the main body of the reference under the subheading ‘Legal Authorities’. Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999, Disability, ageing and carers: summary of findings, cat. no. 4430. 0, ABS, Canberra. Case You will need to edit the in-text citation for it to appear in italics and add the case abbreviation Report (put cat. o. 4430. 0 in the Accession Number field, ABS in Institution) Report (put cat. no. 4430. 0 in the Accession Number field, October 14, 2002 in Access Date, AusStats in Name of Database. ) Report (use Access Date & Name of Database for retrieved statement. ) Australian Bureau of Statistics Bulletin (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999) Australian Bureau of Statistics from AusStats (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999) Australian Bureau of Statistics 1999, Disability, ageing and carers: summary of findings, cat. no. 4430. 0, ABS, Canberra. Retrieved October 14, 2002, from AusStats database.

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001, Census of population and housing: B01 selected characteristics (First release processing) postal area 6050. Retrieved November 20, 2002, from AusStats database. Census Information (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001) Government Report (Resource Assessment Commission 1991) Resource Assessment Commission 1991, Forest and timber inquiry: draft report, vol. 1, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. Report (put vol. 1 in the Accession Number field, Australian Government Publishing Service in Institution. ) Semester 1 2006 9 of 11 Patent U. S. Patent No. 554399 (1985) Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, U. S. Patent 4554399. Standards Australia 1997, Size coding scheme for infants’ and children’s clothing – underwear and outerwear, AS 1182-1997. Retrieved January 10, 2006, from Standards Australia Online database. Patent (put Cookson, AH in Inventor, U. S. Patent 4554399 in Patent Number. ) Report (put AS 1182-1997 in the Accession Number field, January 10, 2006 in Access Date, Standards Australia Online in Name of Database. ) EndNote 9 (which reference type? ) Enter in-text citation manually.

Standard (Standards Australia 1997) Other Sources Personal communication, e-mail and discussion lists with no web archive. In-Text Example ‘It was confirmed that an outbreak occurred in London’ (S Savieri 1999, pers. comm. , 24 April). Reference List Example Not included in reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader. Films and videorecordings, (Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992) Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992, videorecording, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney. Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. Any special information may be noted after the citation.

Film or Broadcast (put videorecording in the Format field, Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra in Credits. ) Television and radio programmes (What are we going to do with the money? 1997) What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television programme, SBS Television, Sydney, 8 August. Film or Broadcast (put television programme in the Format Field, SBS Television in Distributor, Sydney in Country. ) Film or Broadcast (put podcast radio programme in the Format field, ABC Radio National in Distributor, Sydney in Country, 10 September in Date Released, September 28, 2005 in Access Date, http://www. bc. net. au/podcast/default. htm #mind in URL. ) Semester 1 2006 Podcasts (The wings of a butterfly – children, teenagers and anxiety 2005) The wings of a butterfly – children, teenagers and anxiety 2005, podcast radio programme, ABC Radio National, Sydney, 10 September. Retrieved September 16, 2005, from http://www. abc. net. au/podcast/default. htm#mind 10 of 11 CD-ROMS (Dr Brain thinking games 1998) Dr Brain thinking games 1998, CD-ROM, Knowledge Adventure Inc. , Torrance, California. Computer Program ERIC document (microfiche)

Davis and Lombardi (1996) put forward the proposal that… Davis, RK & Lombardi, TP 1996, ‘The quality of life of rural high school special education graduates’, in Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work. ERIC Document No. 394765, microfiche. Generic (put Rural goals 2000: Building programs that work in the Secondary Title field, ERIC Document No. ED394765 in Publisher, microfiche in Type of Work) Newspaper Article (put Little, L in the Reporter field, ECPOLICY in Newspaper, discussion list in Section, November 13, 2002 in Notes, http://www. askeric. rg/ VirtualListserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002 /Apr_2002/Msg00003. html in Type of Article) E-mail discussion list – web archive (Little 2002) Little, L 2002, ‘Two new policy briefs’, ECPOLICY discussion list, 16 April. Retrieved November 13, 2002 from http://www. askeric. org/Virtual Listserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/Ms g00003. html It is very important that you check your department’s or school’s assignment guide as some details, e. g. punctuation, may vary from the guidelines on this page. You may be penalised for not conforming to your school’s requirements. 11 of 11 Semester 1 2006

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