Horatio Gates Essay

A Forgotten Revolutionary Hero Horatio Gates Horatio Gates was a British native that became an American general during the Revolutionary War. [1] He was given credit for the greatest victory during the war. Without him, the New England colonies would not be part of the United States. [2] Because of “his” victory, it turned the tide of victory in the revolution. His career as a general all went wrong after he lost a battle. Horatio Lloyd Gates was born in 1728 in Maldon, Essex, England and died April 10, 1806, in New York. [3] He married Elizabeth Phillips and later had a son, Robert. 4] He first served in America during the French and Indian War. He served alongside with the unfortunate General Braddock. He also served with Thomas Gage, Charles Lee, and George Washington. [5] He returned to England after the victory of the British. Gates later resigned as a Major General and moved to Virginia. [6] When Gates was in Virginia, he was appointed Adjutant General of the Continental Army. He used his administrative skills as an Adjutant General, but when he was promoted to Major General, he became the Commander of the Northern Department, replacing Schuyler. 7] He was appointed Commander of the Northern Department in time for the Battle of Saratoga. [8] In the two battles of Saratoga, “Gates” forced the surrender of General Burgoyne. Gates really was not the reason why Burgoyne surrendered. It was because the previous tactics of Schuyler and the initiatives of Benedict Arnold. [9] After the victory, Gates tried to make the most of the “political return on his victory, since Washington was having very little success with the main army. ” (Biography Base)[10] The victory meant the turning of tides in the war.

It also meant that New England would not be separated from the rest of the colonies. [11] Because of this victory, Congress elected Gates as President of the Board of War. At the same time, a group of officers became involved with a plan to replace General George Washington with Major General Gates. The plan failed and Gates returned to New York in the spring. [12] After the battles of Saratoga and Gates returned to New York, he was appointed to command the Southern Department of the Continental Army. 13] He led his army to Camden, South Carolina to drive out the British forces under General Charles Cornwallis. Cornwallis in the Battle of Camden tragically defeated Gates. Worse than the defeat, he “learned his son Robert had been killed in combat in October. ” (Biography Base) After the horrible defeat, Gates was replaced by Washington’s choice of Nathanael Greene. [14] Following the replacement of Gates, he returned home to his wife. Horatio Gate’s wife, “Elizabeth, died in the summer of 1783. (Biography Base) He retired as a Major General and returned to Virginia. Shortly after that, “he freed all his slaves and moved to New York. ” (Encyclopedia Britannica) When he moved to New York, he proposed marriage to Janet Montgomery, General Montgomery’s widow, but she declined. [15] He later married Mary Valens, a very wealthy woman from Liverpool. Gates then served a single term in the state legislature. [16] He then died on April 10, 1806. Gates is buried at Trinity’s Church in New York on Wall Street. [17] However, his grave is unknown.

Gates is a forgotten hero in the American Revolution. He was remembered mainly for his disagreement with General Washington and his military mistakes in the South. Works Cited Biography Base. 2004. 16 November 2009. . “Horatio Gates. ” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 18 November 2009. . Sack Lunch. 2009. 13 November 2009 . The Architect of the Capitol. 2006. 13 November 2009 Billias Athan, George. The American Revolution Homepage. 2004. 20 November 2009 ———————– [1] Sack Lunch, 2009 2] The Architect of the Capitol, 2006 [3] Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009 [4] Billias Athan, George, The American Revolution Homepage, 2004 [5] Biography Base, 2004 [6] Biography Base, 2004 [7] Biography Base, 2004 [8] Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009 [9] Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009 [10] Biography Base, 2004 [11] The Architect of the Capitol, 2006 [12] Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009 [13] Biography Base, 2004 [14] Billias Athan, George, The American Revolution Homepage, 2004 [15] Biography Base, 2004 [16] Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009 [17] Biography Base, 2004

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