It will make sense, I promise! FYI- some kooks have an errors in the charts on pages 168-169. Make sure that your chart lists Corticosteroid and Hominid in the Superficially category, and not the Infrared category. Terms: arboreal Post orbital bar or plate Anthropoids Corticosteroid Prehensile polystyrene quadruped Appendectomy Catherine Scalia callosities Provisions 2-1-3-3 bloodstone Uranium 2-1-2-3 sexual dimorphism Hominid fabrication Y-5 Holidayed Pointing pong Gorilla pan knuckleball Pan troglodytes Pan panics What is a primate?
Primates are very generalized group that cannot be easily identified by 1 or woo characteristics. In fact, primates have suite of characteristics. Keep in mind that primates are adapted to an arboreal (tree) lifestyle. Think about how these characteristics would help an animal living in the tree. In order to be considered part of the Order primates, an animal must have several of the following characteristics: 1. At least 1 nail on a digit of the hand or foot 2. Post orbital bar or plate (bony ring protecting eye socket) 3. Forward facing eyes with stereoscopic vision (AD) 4. Bright posture- spinal column comes in under skull, rather than at the jack 5. Prehensile hands and feet (grasping) 6. Appendectomy (5 digits on hands and feet) 7. Opposable toe and/or thumb 8. Enlargement of cerebral hemisphere of brain 9. One pair of mammary glands (implies single births; no litters) 10. Well developed clavicle (for swinging and movement through the trees) 1 1 . Reduced sense of smell (heightened visual) 12. Generalized dentition 13. Delayed maturation (single births, longer gestation time) There are two suborders within the order Primates: Provision and anthropoids.
Us border: Provisions (lemurs, lorries, tarsier) Just a post orbital bar (anthropoids have complete closure- post orbital plate) Generally exhibit more ancestral traits Dental comb used for grooming and feeding Grooming claw (on 2nd toe) Vertical clinging and leaping locomotion Uranium- moist, hairless pad at end of nose (reliance on sense of smell) -Lemurs (Madagascar- only place found in the world) -Lorries- nocturnal SE Asia -Tarsier- problems classifying them (they share a lot of characteristics with both the provisions and anthropoids- so, scientists don’t know where to place them.
There have been lots of debates about this, and many scientists re advocating for a new system- called classics to solve the tarsier problem. I’m old school on this debate- so the tarsier will remain a provision for our purposes. ) Anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans) Reduced snouts Less specialized dentition Post orbital closure Includes 2 smaller taxonomic groupings (infrared- Polystyrene and Catherine) Infrared: Polystyrene (New World Monkey) Monkeys of Central and South America (I. E.
Howler, marmosets, tamarind, spider monkey) Mostly diurnal (living during daytime), nostrils flare out on side, dental formula = 2-1-3-3 Almost exclusively arboreal, many have Renville tails ** dental formula- take mouth, look only at upper or lower jaw, divide in h (so, now you are essentially looking at 1/4 of the total mouth) and count number of the 4 different types of teeth Catherine (Old World Monkey) Monkeys and apes Of Africa and Asia Downward facing nostrils 2-1-2-3 (stands for 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars and 3 molars) Contains 2 smaller taxonomic groups (superficially- Corticosteroid and Hominid) Us primarily: Corticosteroids (Old World Monkeys) Quadruped- 4 legged movement (with ASCII’ callosities- sitting pads) Longer lumbar region and short rib cage
Bloodstone molars (“2 ridge teeth”- means there are 4 cusps, or points on the molars, it looks like 2 ridges and a valley in between if viewed from the side) Many display sexual dimorphism (marked physical differences between the male and female of a species Hominid (apes and humans) Fabrication (capability to swing) Front limbs longer than legs Flattened rib cage front to back Short lumbar region Long clavicle Y-5 molar (5 cusps on tooth, a not as precisely arranged as the bloodstone molars) Includes families Hominid, Pointing and Holidayed Family: Holidayed- gibbons and signings From tropical areas of Asia Fabricator (very long arms and curved hands) Pointing- (includes Pong-orange, Pan- chimp and Gorilla-Gorilla Homicidal- humans are only living representative Pointing Geneses: Pong (orangutans)found in Indonesia Largest arboreal mammal Slow moving climbers, use 4 hands Sexual dimorphism (females weigh bass, males weigh bass) Forgivers Solitary Gorilla (Gorilla) largest primate W and E equatorial Africa Knuckledusters Sexual dimorphism extreme (females weigh 200 lbs, males weigh 400 lbs) Alpha male-? silverware 1 Male live with several females
Vegetarian Shy and gentle (not like King Kong) pan (Chimpanzee) Pan troglodytes- equatorial Africa Knuckleball Smaller than gorillas, not as dimorphic Some brecciate Eat wide variety of foods Live in large groups Pan panics (bonbons) Least studied More arboreal with fluid communities Sexual creatures- greetings and placate aggression with sex (g-g rubbing) Some people think we are actually closer related to Pan panics, than common chimps (troglodytes) Conclusion: There is a whole world of primates out there. But, they all fall into this chart, based on their characteristics. The rest fifths section will build upon this taxonomy. We will be discussing diet, mating patterns, social patterns, etc. I love primates!!! If you get a chance to see primates in action during this section, definitely take advantage of it. The zoo is a wonderful classroom! Assignments: This week I want you to go to Jane Goodwill’s Institute (www. Genealogical. Org). Jane Goodly, Of course, is famous for her chimpanzee studies. I want you to follow the link to Chimpanzee.
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